Mostly, increased pressure is called hypertension, but its more correct name is arterial hypertension. You can also find the term high blood pressure, but all these terms reflect the same thing.
Almost 20-25% of the total adult population has high blood pressure, that is, it suffers from one form or another of arterial hypertension, and the most able-bodied people most often do not have this disorder to 30-60 years. According to the data about population USA, we can assume that about 80 million patients have arterial hypertension. Annually, arterial hypertension is first detected in about 2 million patients. In itself, an increase in blood pressure (AH) often occurs asymptomatic and manifests itself only in the late stage of disease with severe complications (cerebral stroke, cardiac or renal failure, myocardial infarction). However, regardless of whether the patient has symptoms of the disease, or not, a stable increase in blood pressure always leads to the development of secondary morphological changes in the vessels with a disorder of vital organs. Therefore, it is very important to have at least a general idea of this disease, methods for its diagnosis and treatment.
The arterial pressure is the pressure that is created by the heart muscle and blood vessels. Heart muscle rhythmically shrinks and with every push throws a regular portion of blood into the aorta. This is what ensures normal circulation in the body.
It can be measured two types of blood pressure – systolic and diastolic, that is, at the time of reduction of the heart muscle and during its relaxation. It is believed that the optimum level is 120 to 80 millimeters of the mercury column. If the levels exceed 140 per 100 over a long period of time, this is an indicator of hypertension.
The main cause of hypertension is quite simple: the vessels are narrowed, and the heart has to make more effort to push blood. But eventually the power of the heart is depleted, the walls of the vessels feel an increased load, because of this a whole complex of complications is possible.
Causes and risk factors for hypertension
Despite the fact that the mechanism of hypertension in most cases is one and the same, there are quite a variety of factors that can provoke the appearance of hypertension:
- Overweight. The higher the body weight, the higher the load is felt by the heart.
- Frequent stress at work or at home.
- Sluggish lifestyle, lack of physical activity.
- Incorrect nutrition: excess in the diet of animal fats, salt, lack of fresh fruits and vegetables.
- Harmful habits: alcohol, narcotic drugs, smoking.
- Excess blood cholesterol, which is deposited on the walls of the vessels and narrowing them.
- Acceptance of some medications.
- Age over 50 years.
- Pregnancy. During pregnancy, so-called gestational hypertension may develop. It disappears after the birth of a child.
- Kidney disease
- Some pathologies of the heart.
- Hereditary predisposition to hypertension.
Treatment of arterial hypertension
Treatment of arterial hypertension includes such groups of drugs: