Healthy skin color is a subject of constant concern for almost every woman. However, external influences and not always the right way of life even with regular care can lead to deterioration of it condition and the emergence of a variety of aesthetic problems.
One of the most common defects is hyperpigmentation of the skin – excessive formation of pigment substances in it, the deposits of which form spots of various shapes, colors, quantities and locations.
The causes of such formations can be very different – from a long stay in the sun to a violation of internal metabolic processes in the body and various diseases.
Increased skin pigmentation can be caused by the following factors and their combinations:
- excessive sun exposure;
- injuries and inflammatory processes in the skin;
- violation of the endocrine glands (sex glands, adrenal glands);
- elderly age;
- diseases of the liver and biliary system;
- metabolic disorders, especially vitamin C deficiency;
- taking certain drugs and substances – salicylic acid, tetracycline antibiotics, etc .;
- various intoxications;
- as a side effect after certain types of chemical peels (if there is a predisposition), as well as after laser procedures.
In addition, there is an independent pathology – melanomadermia (melanosis) – characterized by impaired pigment formation in the skin. It may be congenital or acquired.
Congenital pigment spots:
- freckles – placers of small specks on the skin of the face, hands, back, chest;
- birthmarks and nevi – can be of various shapes and sizes, can grow throughout life or remain unchanged.
- diffuse – in violation of the adrenal glands – brown or bronze spots on the open areas of the skin, in the area of the white line of the abdomen, nipple areola, perineum;
- chloasma – often occurs during pregnancy, during puberty, with inflammatory diseases of the female reproductive system. It is spots of irregular forms with clear boundaries are localized mainly on the skin of the face;
- hepatic chloasma – develops in chronic liver diseases with frequent relapses. It is spots with pronounced vascular mesh on the lateral surfaces of the cheeks with the transition to the neck;
- Brock’s pigment perioral dermatosis – yellowish-brown spots form in the area of the mouth, chin, in the nasolabial folds and are caused by impaired gastrointestinal function and ovarian function.
- Lentigo – age pigment spots in people older than 40 years, occur naturally due to the uneven distribution of pigment in the upper layers of the skin.
Treatment of skin hyperpigmentation
As a rule, increased pigmentation does not pose any threat to health and primarily is a cosmetic problem. At the same time, lack of treatment and prolonged exposure to the sun (especially if the spots are in open areas of the body) can lead to their growth and deterioration of the dermis.
To get rid of hyperpigmentation, several steps are required: