Melasma is excessive pigmentation of the skin that develops in the face and neck. At open areas of the skin appear stains of various sizes with clearly defined edges. The color of this benign formations is very diverse – from light brown to dark shades, sometimes spots are almost black. The more melanin (coloring pigment) is produced by melasma, the more pronounced displays of melasma. Most often, brown spots appear in women during periods of hormonal failure.
Excessive pigmentation often occurs in future mothers. Most doctors believe that pregnancy and melasma are closely linked. No wonder this cosmetic defect is called a mask of pregnant women. Specific formation on the skin is a result of a violation of the hormonal background. After the birth of the baby the skin becomes a natural color, melasma gradually disappears without special therapy.
Other causes and provocative factors:
- Reception of hormonal contraceptive pills;
- Prolonged exposure to the sun without applying protective creams to the skin. The result – excessive allocation of melanin; increased the sensitivity of the skin and exposure to UV rays;
- Changes in the hormonal background – dysfunction of the ovaries; diseases of the pancreas, liver, organs of the gastrointestinal tract;
- Genetic predisposition;
- Growth of cells responsible for the production of melanin;
- Using some cosmetic products.
How to get rid of an illness
The choice of therapy depends on the etiology of the disease. The specific mask of pregnant women passes after the birth of a child. During the lactation, the pigment spots become lighter, become less noticeable, and then disappear altogether. No treatment is required. Abnormal pigmentation caused by other causes requires close attention. There are many modern methods that can solve the problem.
There are two therapeutic lines.
In the first line, the emphasis is placed on the use of external means. The task of drugs is to prevent the excess production of coloring pigment. There are used proofreaders, tonal creams with SPF 50 and more.
Second line. Combination therapy shows good results. There are used hardware cosmetology, topical corticosteroids, hydroquinone (A Ret HC, Cosmelite Cream, Eukroma-Plus), and other potent substances. The treatment has an active effect on the skin, but you should understand that it is costly, requires more time, patience, responsible attitude.
The main methods of treatment
- using drugs that reduce the production of melanin – azelaic acid, topical corticosteroids, hydroquinone;
- the application of bleaching creams on a vegetative basis. Warehouses are suitable for minimal pigmentation, a minimal number of formations. Active substances – thymol, argutin, koyev acid inhibits the production of coloring pigment;
- treatment of the skin with bleaching creams with hydroquinone. Expensive patented products contain 2% hydroquinone in a complex of active substances;
- azelaic acid as part of a therapeutic cream or gel perfectly depigments the skin. The drug is suitable for patients with mixed and superficial forms of abnormal pigmentation. Tolerability is good, but sometimes there is burning, itching, redness.